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Bibliographies & Citing

Annotated Bibliography

"An annotated bibliography bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph (the annotation). The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited."

Source: How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography

  • Retrieved from http://www.library.cornell.edu/olinuris/ref/research/skill28.htm
  • Research & Learning Services
  • Olin Library
  • Cornell University Library
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  • Permission has been granted to reproduce and adapt the information for non-commercial use.

Format of an Annotated Bibliography

Your instructor may have indicated a particular style guide to use (many instructors use APA). If not, consult The Chicago Manual.

Most bibliographies organize items alphabetically by the author's last name. Use a citation style guide to determine what information to include for each item. Your annotation should appear right after or below the citation.

 

Example According to MLA

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

 

Example According to APA

Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51(4), 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

 
 

Notice that the first part of the annotation is descriptive and the last sentence is a brief evaluation.

Notice that the first few sentences of the annotation discuss the reliability of the article while the last sentence relates to its usefulness.

 

For more information, please see How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated Bibliography, http://guides.library.cornell.edu/c.php?g=32342&p=203789

Annotating Text

 

Annotating requires marking up the text with highlighting, underlining, markings, and writing in the margins. If the text does not belong to you, use small post-it notes and stick them to the pages.

 

What Does Annotated Text Look Like?

The following website provide an example of an annotated text:
http://www.niagara.edu/assets/listpage/Annotating-Textbooks.pdf

 
When you annotate text you are doing the following while you read:
 
  1. Identifying key words, phrases, concepts, terms, or ideas
    • Highlight, circle, and/or underline key words or phrases that identify main ideas or concepts. Be careful not to overdo these types of markings or they will become meaningless
    • Highlight, circle, or underline testable information, or anything that might be useful for future assignments
    • Consider using different colours or markings for various types of information
    • Define any difficult vocabulary words
    • If the text does not already contain clear headings and subheadings, create a marginal index by writing key words in the margin to identify themes, main ideas, topics, and subtopics
  2. Asking questions
    • Put a question mark ("?") in the margin to indicate a question
    • Consider open-ended questions (What if…? Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?) that relate to the following:
      • What the author is saying;
      • Why the author says something;
      • What the author means by something;
      • Details, words, or concepts that need more clarification;
      • What certain sections mean, or how they relate to your area of study;
      • Things that you disagree with or are skeptical of;
      • Bias, reliability, validity, completeness, clarity, accuracy, and currency
    • Explore "What if…?" questions
  3. Making connections
    • Make notes that connect information in the text to the following:
      • Your reading goal
      • Other information on the topic
      • Something you heard or experienced related to the information in the text
      • Applications of the concepts or ideas in the text
      • A possible test question
      • Something that contradicts what the writer is saying
    • Draw arrows that connect one section of the text to another
  4. Recording thoughts, reflections, and feelings
    • Write notes in the margins to indicate the following:
      • How you feel about what the author is saying
      • Whether you agree or disagree and why
      • Any thoughts you have related to the information and ideas

APA Manual Cross References (6th Edition)

APA Manual Cross References 6th Edtion
APA Element 6th Edition
Page
Number
6th Edition
Section
Number
 
QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING
In Text Quotation (less than 40 words) 170 6.03
Block Quotation (more than 40 words) 171 6.03
Quotes from Online Sources 171-172 N/A
Paraphrasing 171 6.04
Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination 171 6.05
 
REFERENCE LIST
References 37 2.11
Reference List 180 - 192 N/A
Typing Reference Page 180 6.22
Reference Components 183 N/A
Authors 184 6.27
Chapters in an Edited Book (e.g. Ross-Kerr) 184 6.27
Publication Date 185, 186 6.28, 6.30
Title 185 6.29
Electronic Copy of a Journal, Retrieved from Database 187, 189 6.31, 6.32
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 188, 189 6.31, 6.32
URL 188 6.31
Referencing Photos, Music, Movies, Art, Maps, etc. 209 7.07
Referencing Legal Materials (e.g. Court Decisions) 217 7.02 - 7.07
Order of References in Reference List 181 6.24
Order of Several Works by the Same Author 182 6.25
Order of Several Works by Different Authors with the Same Surname 183 6.25
Reference Examples by Type 193 - 215 7.01
 
STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
Margins 229 8.03
Double Spacing 229 8.03
Order of Pages 229 8.03
Page Numbers 230 8.03
Page Header 230 8.03
Preferred Typeface 229 8.03
Paragraphs and Indentations 229 8.03
Levels of Heading 62 3.02, 3.03
Title Page 23, 229 2.01, 8.03
Sample Paper 41 N/A
Seriation (lists) 63 3.04
Paragraph Length 68 N/A
 
IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Plagiarism (overview) 51, 170 1.10, 6.01
Reference Citation In-Text 174 N/A
One Author 174 6.11
Multiple Authors 175 6.12
Authors with the Same Surname 176 6.14
Two or More Authors in the Same Parentheses 177 6.16
Personal Communication 179 6.20
Citation of Work Discussed in Secondary Source 178 6.17
Citation Within Quotation 173 6.09
Classical Works 178 6.18
No Identified Author/ Anonymous Author 176 6.15
No Retrieval Date 192, 199 N/A
 
GRAMMAR, SPELLING, PUNCTUATION
Use of I, We… 69 3.09
Use of Verbs 77 3.18
Abbreviation in Text 106, 111 4.22, 4.30
Guidelines for Reducing Bias 71 N/A
Numbers in Text and at the Beginning of a Sentence 111 4.31, 4.32
Punctuation 87 4.01 - 4.13
Spelling 96 4.12
 

* Modified from K. Weatherall

Owl Purdue

Online Resource for Writing

Check out the Purdue Online Writing Lab

 
Some Examples of What You Will Find
 
MLA Formatting and Style Guide

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/

  • In-Text Citations
  • Works Cited Page
  • MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources
  • Sample Paper
 
APA Formatting and Style Guide

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

  • In-Text Citations
  • Reference Lists
  • Reference Lists: Electronic Sources
  • Sample Paper
 
Punctuation

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/6/

  • Apostrophes
  • Commas vs. Semicolons
  • Dependent and Independent Clauses
 
Grammar

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/5/

  • Spelling
  • Adjectives and Adverbs
  • Articles (a/an/the)
  • Prepositions (to, at, on, in...)
  • Relative Pronouns (that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why).
  • Subject/Verb Agreement
  • Verb Tenses