This guide is representative of the 7th edition Publication Manual of APA and focuses on a student paper structure.
APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.
Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.
Effective September 2020.
When information to create the reference list entry is missing, see APA Style website or the Publication Manual, Table 9.1. Examples are also provided for the in-text citation to match the reference list entry with missing elements.