Skip to main content

APA Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples provided are not exhaustive. Students must seek assistance from the Writing Centre and/or their Professor for specific or problematic references. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions or problems of interpretation. Last Updated

Citation basics

An APA citation consists of a number of different parts/elements that are required to properly attribute information to an original source. Many of these elements repeat, even across citations for different types of sources like books, articles and websites.

Most APA citations include at least:

  • Author/Creator written in the format: Lastname, FirstInitial. SecondInitial.
  • Date
  • Title

In the examples below, common APA citation parts are highlighted as they appear in the Library's MultiSearch tool.

The more accurate your APA citation, the easier it is for a reader to check your sources.

Parts of a citation - Articles

Each article entry in MultiSearch contains all the info needed to make an APA citation such as article title, author, journal, year, volume/issue number, page numbers.

The above parts go together in the following way to create an APA reference page entry:

Subapriya, K. K. (2009). The importance of non-verbal cues. ICFAI Journal of Soft Skills, 3(2), 37-42.

Parts of a citation - Books

Each book entry in MultiSearch contains all the info needed to make an APA citation including book title, author, date, publisher, place of publication.

The above parts go together in the following way to create an APA reference page entry:

Morrison, T. & Conaway, W. A. (2012). Kiss, bow, or shake hands : sales and marketing : the essential cultural guide--from presentations and promotions to communicating and closing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

 

Parts of a citation - Websites

Typical website with markup showing where parts of a citation are found.

The parts of the citation identified above go together to form the following reference page entry:

Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit. (2014). Cost of healthy eating. Retrieved from http://www.simcoemuskokahealth.org/Topics/HealthyEating/FoodSecurity/CostofHealthyEating.aspx .