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APA Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples provided are not exhaustive. Students must seek assistance from the Writing Centre and/or their Professor for specific or problematic references. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions or problems of interpretation. Last Updated

Getting Started

Reference page entries in APA for books and e-Books (including textbooks), as well as sections from a larger book like a chapter, essay or short story will usually include:

  • Author/Creator written in the format: Lastname, FirstInitial. SecondInitial. eg. John Andrew Smith would be Smith, J. A. 
  • Date
  • Title
  • City of publication
  • Publisher's name
  • Editor(s) names
  • Edition
  • Section name & author (chapter, short story, essay)
Something is missing

Something is missing

What to do if information (such as date or author) is missing for your APA citation.

Something is missing

Where do I find

Where do I find?

Learn how to find the author, date, title and publication information

Where do I find ...?

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Books

Reference page entry:

Keohane, R.O. & Nye, J.S. (2012). Power and interdependence (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Longman.

In-text citation:

(Keohane & Nye, 2012)

Reference page entry:

Rourke, J.T. (Ed.). (2014). Taking sides. Clashing views in world politics (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

In-text citation:

(Rourke, 2014)

Reference page entry:

Morrison, T. (2012). Kiss, bow, or shake hands: Sales and marketing: The essential cultural guide--from presentations and promotions to communicating and closing.  New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

In-text citation:

(Morrison, 2012).

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Section(s) of a book - Chapter, essay, short story

Reference page entry:

Little, C. M. (2014). Fetal development: Environmental influences and critical periods. In C. Kenner & J. W. Lott (Eds.), Comprehensive neonatal nursing care (5th ed., pp. 1-27). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

In-text citation:

Two options

  1. (Little, 2014)  Chapter number not included
  2. (Little, 2014, Chapter 1)  Chapter number included

*Please verify with your professor what they require

TIP: Books with essays or chapters written by different authors often have an editor as well. You need to include this in your reference page entry.

Reference page entry:

Gallant, M. (2005). My heart is broken. In R. Brown & D. Bennett (Eds.), Canadian short stories (pp. 130-136). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc.

In-text citation:

(Gallant, 2005)


TIP: Books with essays or chapters written by different authors often have an editor as well. You need to include this in your reference page entry.

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e-Books

Reference page entry:

Lindquist, R., & Snyder, M. (2010). Complementary & alternative therapies in nursing. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com/ebooks

In-text citation:

(Lindquist & Snyder, 2010)

Note: If the resource does not have a DOI, APA guidelines ask you to find the base URL of the database to provide as the "Retrieved from" URL. Try searching Google for the database name - in this case "EBSCO eBook collection".

Reference page entry:

Marcus, D. A. (2011). The power of wagging tails: A doctor’s guide to dog therapy and healing. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books

In-text citation:

(Marcus, 2011)

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Dealing with multiple authors

When a source has only one author, prepare your reference list entry by typing the author's name in the format Lastname, Initials.

Convert the author's name into the format Lastname, Initials and use as the first part of your reference page entry.

In this example, your reference page entry would start with the author's names in this format:

Schneider-Mayerson, M.

Your in-text citation for one author is quite simple:

(Schneider-Mayerson, 2013)

If your source has two authors, format the authors' names (Lastname, Initials) and include with an & in between.

If your source has two authors, include both names with a & in between

Your reference page entry will start with:

Schöpfel, J. & Leduc, C.

In-text citation:

(Schöpfel & Leduc, 2012)

If your source has 3 to 5 authors, format the authors' names as shown (Lastname, Initials), and insert all authors' names before the date, including an "&" before the last author:

An example of 3 to 5 authors in MultiSearch.  Remember to change the author's names into the correct APA format.

In this example, your reference page entry would start with the authors' names in this format:

Bush, A.A., Nipperess, D.A., Duursma, D.E., Theischinger, G., Turak, E. & Hughes, L.

If you have 3-5 authors: the first time you use an in-text citation, include all authors' last names.

(Bush, Nipperess, Duursma, Theischinger, Turak & Hughes, 2014)

In the next or any other instances, use only the first author's last name and add "et al.", with the date:

(Bush et al., 2014)

If you have 6 or more authors, use only the first author's last name and add "et al." with the date when writing your in-text ctiation:

(Bush et al., 2014)

If your source has more than 8 authors, include the first six authors' names in the correct format (Lastname, Initials), then add a ... and include the last author's name.

For sources with more than 7 authors, include the first six authors and the very last author

In this example, the reference page entry authors' names would look like this:

Ngongo, P.B., Priddy, F., Park, H., Becker, J. Bender, B., Fast, P., ... Mebrahtu, T.

TIP: You may need to click on the article title (as above) to see all authors' names and retrieve the last author for your reference page entry.

In-text citation:

(Ngongo et al., 2012)

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Books: Where do I find...

Each book entry in MultiSearch contains all the info needed to make an APA citation including book title, author, date, publisher, place of publication.

The above parts go together in the following way to create an APA reference page entry:

Subapriya, K. K. (2009). The importance of non-verbal cues. ICFAI Journal of Soft Skills, 3(2), 37-42.

A marked up photo pointing where to find the Publication Date in a book.Publication Date is usually found anywhere from the middle of the page to the bottom of the verso. If publication date is unavailable, then use Copyright year. These two concepts are not the same even though the years usually match. 

 

 

A marked up photo pointing where to find the publisher name in a book.Publisher name may be found near the top of the verso or at the bottom of the main title page.

Place of publication can usually be found at the bottom of the main title page (or the top of the verso/other side).A marked up photo pointing where to find the place of publication in a book.

DOI is the short form for "Digital Object Identifier", a unique number (eg: 10.1037.a0034500) given to SOME resources, designed to help find a particular items quickly. DOIs are sometimes used in citations.

In the library databases, look for the DOI in the information about the article:

If a DOI is available, you do not need to use "Retrieved from..." in your citation, just use the DOI.

If the resource does not have a DOI, APA guidelines ask you to find the base URL of the database to provide as the "Retrieved from" URL. Try searching Google for the database name - in this case "EBSCO eBook collection".

You may also want to ask your professor if they'd prefer to know what Library database you used. You could substitute "EBSCO eBook collection" for the URL if your professor prefers.

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