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APA (6th ed.) Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples are not exhaustive & focus on referencing & citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions, or interpretation.

APA 6th Edition

This guide is representative of the 6th edition Publication Manual of APA.

APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.

Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.

Effective October 1, 2019.

Getting Started

APA reference page entries for Music CDs, DVDs, videos, YouTube & other online streaming video sources will typically require:

  • Author/Creator written in format Lastname, FirstInitial. SecondInitial.
  • Screen name, if provided
  • Date
  • Title
  • that you identify them as a audio/video source - eg [DVD], [Video file]
  • date posted online - for streaming videos
  • The web address/ URL they are located at
  • The date they were retrieved online
  • Producer or director if they can be identified
  • The name of the organization that posted the video to a service such as YouTube

YouTube - the person who posted the video is put in the author position and there may be an alternate screen name

Something is missing

Something is missing

What to do if information (such as date or author) is missing for your APA citation.

Something is missing

Where do I find

Where do I find?

Learn how to find the author, date, title and publication information.

Where do I find ...?

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Streaming video from Library databases

Films on Demand provides streaming videos that are only available within the library's database. There are two different options: citing a specific segment of the video, or the video as a whole.

Screenshot provides a visual of a typical Films on Demand segment in the browser window.
Screenshot source: Video Education America (Producer). (2010). Barriers to communication [segment 4]. In Don't hesitate, communicate: Effective communication in the office [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand.

Reference page entry - video segment:

Video Education America (Producer). (2010). Barriers to communication [segment 4]. In Don't hesitate, communicate: Effective communication in the office [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand.

Reference page entry - whole video:

Video Education America (Producer). (2010). Don't hesitate, communicate: Effective communication in the office [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand.

In-text citation:

(Video Education America, 2010)

Note: The APA Style Blog recommends using the format [Streaming video] when citing these types of videos, as well as listing the database name rather than a retrieved from URL. Check with your professor to see if he or she would prefer to see a full URL.


Watch a short video tutorial from the APA Style Blog: Citing a streaming video database.

McNabb Connolly videos are cited in much the same way as Films on Demand or other streaming video databases.

Screenshot visual of a typical McNabb Connolly video from the library's database.
Screenshot source: BBC. (2013). The age of big data [Streaming video]. Retrieved from McNabb Connolly Streamed Video Collection.

Reference page entry:

BBC (Producer). (2013). The age of big data [Streaming video]. Retrieved from McNabb Connolly Streamed Video Collection.

In-text citation:

(BBC, 2013)

Note: The APA Style Blog recommends using the format [Streaming video] when citing these types of videos, as well as listing the database name rather than a retrieved from URL. Check with your professor to see if he or she would prefer to see a full URL.


Watch a short video tutorial from the APA Style Blog: Citing a streaming video database.

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TEDTalk

When citing a TED talk, note the source of the video. Some TEDTalk videos may be found on YouTube, and some on the TEDTalk website. Slightly different information may be available at the different sources.

TED Talk from the original TEDTalk website

Screenshot of the TEDTalk: Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator - from the TEDTalk website
Screenshot source: Urban, T. (2016, February). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_urban_inside_the_mind_of_a_master_procrastinator

Reference page entry:

Urban, T. (2016, February). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_urban_inside_the_mind_of_a_master_procrastinator

In-text citation:

(Urban, 2016)


For more examples, please see the APA Style Blog - How to cite a TED talk in APA Style

TEDTalks on YouTube are not necessarily uploaded with the same information as the main TEDTalk website. See a sample citation for the same video below.

Screenshot of TEDTalk posted on YouTube.com - Tim Urban: Inside the mind of the master procrastinator
Screenshot source: TED. (2016, April 6). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arj7oStGLkU

Reference page entry:

TED. (2016, April 6). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arj7oStGLkU

In-text citation:

(TED, 2016)


For more examples, please see the APA Style Blog - How to cite a TED talk in APA Style

TEDTalks may also appear in search results within the Library's Films On Demand website. Here is a sample:

Screenshot of a TEDTalk as it might appear in the Library's Films on Demand database

Note:

  • Use the copyright date rather than the "date added" - this indicates the date it was put into the database, not necessarily when it was created
  • Other versions of the TEDTalk may not provide segment titles but this one does, so you can cite quite specifically

Reference page entry - segment of talk

TED (Producer). (2012). Redefining leadership [segment 1]. In TEDTalks: Drew Dudley - everyday leadership [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand.

Reference page entry - whole TEDTalk:

TED (Producer). (2012). TEDTalks: Drew Dudley - everyday leadership [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand.

In-text citation:

(TED, 2012)

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YouTube

Sample reference format:

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx (author and screen name known)

Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxx (screen name only)

Reference page entry when author and screen name are provided:

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

In-text citation

(Apsolon, 2011)

Reference page entry when screen name only provided:

AngelDocs. (2012, October 7). William & Kate: The first year [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WZdFPkLhQM

In-text citation:

(AngelDocs, 2012)

DVDs

Reference page entry:

Newman, D. (Writer, Director & Producer) & Gorman, M. (Producer) (2005). What we've learned: A youth perspective of drug misuse [DVD]. Sudbury, Ontario: Sudbury Action Centre for Youth.

In-text citation:

(Newman & Gorman, 2005)

Music CDs

Reference page entry:

Simon, P. (2010). 50 ways to leave your lover. On Still crazy after all these years: The greatest hits of Paul Simon [CD]. New York, NY: CBS Digital.

In-text citation:

(Simon, 2010, track 6)