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APA (6th ed.) Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples are not exhaustive & focus on referencing & citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions, or interpretation.

APA 6th Edition

This guide is representative of the 6th edition Publication Manual of APA.

APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.

Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.

Effective October 1, 2019.

Getting Started

  • Author/Creator written in format Lastname, FirstInitial. SecondInitial.
  • Day, month and year of publication
  • Title of article
  • Publication name
  • Page numbers of the article (if printed)
  • DOI or
  • Retrieved from URL

Web-based news sources can sometimes be tricky to cite. Check out:

Something is missing

Something is missing

What to do if information (such as date or author) is missing for your APA citation.

Something is missing

Where do I find

Where do I find?

Learn how to find the author, date, title and publication information.

Where do I find ...?

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Printed Newspaper Articles

Reference page entry:

Powell, B. & Gillis, W. (2016, June 16). Task force calls for modernized police model. Toronto Star, pp. A1, A6.

In-text citation:

(Powell & Gillis, 2016)

Note: When a newspaper article spans multiple non concurrent pages in a paper, use "pp" instead of "p".

News article from a website

Here is an example of an article found on the Toronto Star website.

A screenshot of a Toronto Star news article on the newspaper's website
Screenshot source: Powell, B. & Gillis, W. (2016, June 15). Police task force calls for hiring freeze, division mergers. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/city_hall/2016/06/15/toronto-police-task-force-urges-hiring-freeze-to-trim-budget.html

Reference page entry:

Powell, B. & Gillis, W. (2016, June 15). Police task force calls for hiring freeze, division mergers. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/city_hall/2016/06/15/toronto-police-task-force-urges-hiring-freeze-to-trim-budget.html

In-text citation:

(Powell & Gillis, 2016)

News article from a library database without a DOI

Reference page entry:

Powell, B. (2016, June 13). Potential fixes and areas of focus for the police force. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.torontostar.com/

In-text citation:

(Powell, 2016)


Note: APA guidelines state that if a DOI is not available, you must use the URL of the homepage where the article is available by a search - to avoid adding a URL that won't work for your reader. However, in some cases, this is problematic. The exact article mentioned here is *NOT* available on the publicly searchable Toronto Star website. In this case, this article was only available through the library database. We recommend asking your professor if an alternate APA citation would work. For more details, see the APA Style Website


Possible Alternate APA citation notes Library database (verify with your Professor before using):

Powell, B. (2016, June 13). Potential fixes and areas of focus for the police force. Toronto Star. Retrieved from Canadian Reference Centre.

Articles: Where do I find...

Each article entry in MultiSearch contains all the info needed to make an APA citation such as article title, author, journal, year, volume/issue number, page numbers.

The above parts go together in the following way to create an APA reference page entry:

Subapriya, K. K. (2009). The importance of non-verbal cues. ICFAI Journal of Soft Skills, 3(2), 37-42.

DOI is the short form for "Digital Object Identifier", a unique number (eg: 10.1037.a0034500) given to SOME resources, designed to help find a particular items quickly. DOIs are sometimes used in citations.

In library databases, look for the DOI in your results list:

If a DOI is available, you do not need to use "Retrieved from..." in your citation, just use the DOI.

Article on a regular webpage:

For a regular webpage, you can usually copy & paste the URL from your browser for the "Retrieved from" URL.


Library Databases:

APA guidelines state that if a DOI is not available, you must use the URL of the homepage where the article is available by a search - to avoid adding a URL that won't work for your reader.

Caution: When searching in Library databases, do not copy & paste a link from the browser URL / address bar. - These links are temporary and may not work if you come back to them later!

  • Check the detailed record (click on the title of the article) in your database results

Look at the detailed record to see if there is a URL mentioned. Click to check - if you can access, use this URL.
MultiSearch, August 2016

  • If there is no URL in the detailed record, you may want to Google the name of the journal and find it's homepage
  • Alternatively, ask your professor if they would accept the Library database name (eg. Retrieved from Canadian Reference Centre) in your reference list.
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