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APA (6th ed.) Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples are not exhaustive & focus on referencing & citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions, or interpretation.

APA 6th Edition

This guide is representative of the 6th edition Publication Manual of APA.

APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.

Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.

Effective October 1, 2019.

Email, course or lecture notes, Powerpoint, interviews

The "Personal Communication" citation format in APA is used when an interaction occurs but there is no print or online record of the conversation or transmission of information. Examples of personal communications might include:

  • Discussion or professor's lecture in class
  • Powerpoint slides from class
  • Course or lecture notes
  • An interview you conducted or participated in
  • A private email exchange, message or conversation online
  • A private phone call or written letter
  • A social media exchange that is not publicly available

Personal communications are not included on your reference page.

 

Instead, you include the words "personal communication" in your in-text citation.

Please consult the Writing Centre or your Professor for more helpFor example:

(S. Smith, personal communication, April 17, 2014)