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APA Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples provided are not exhaustive. Students must seek assistance from the Writing Centre and/or their Professor for specific or problematic references. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions or problems of interpretation. Last Updated

Email, course or lecture notes, Powerpoint, interviews

The "Personal Communication" citation format in APA is used when an interaction occurs but there is no print or online record of the conversation or transmission of information. Examples of personal communications might include:

  • Discussion or professor's lecture in class
  • Powerpoint slides from class
  • Course or lecture notes
  • An interview you conducted or participated in
  • A private email exchange, message or conversation online
  • A private phone call or written letter
  • A social media exchange that is not publicly available

Personal communications are not included on your reference page.

 

Instead, you include the words "personal communication" in your in-text citation.

Please consult the Writing Centre or your Professor for more helpFor example:

(S. Smith, personal communication, April 17, 2014)