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This guide is representative of the 6th edition Publication Manual of APA.
APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.
Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.
Effective October 1, 2019.
The "Personal Communication" citation format in APA is used when an interaction occurs but there is no print or online record of the conversation or transmission of information. Examples of personal communications might include:
Personal communications are not included on your reference page.
Instead, you include the words "personal communication" in your in-text citation.
(S. Smith, personal communication, April 17, 2014)