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APA Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples provided are not exhaustive. Students must seek assistance from the Writing Centre and/or their Professor for specific or problematic references. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions or problems of interpretation. Last Updated

APA 6th Edition

This guide is representative of the 6th edition Publication Manual of APA.

Effective October 1, 2019.

Blogs & Social Media websites

APA Reference page entries for blogs & social media (Twitter, Facebook, etc) will usually include:

  • Author/Creator written in format Lastname, FirstInitial. SecondInitial.
  • Title
  • Date the item was posted to the website
  • Please consult the Writing Centre or your Professor for more helpURL that the item was retrieved from
  • Note indicating what type of source it is, eg: [Blog post], [Tweet], [Facebook note]
     

Blogs

Reference page entry:

Rooney, S. (2014, April 7). Breed of the week: German Shorthaired Pointer [Blog Post]. Retrieved from: http://perfect-pooch.com/breed-of-the-week-german-shorthaired-pointer/

In-text citation:

(Rooney, 2014)

The APA Style Blog recommends that if you want to mention an entire blog, you can include the URL in brackets () after you mention it. For example, your paper you might say:

I check the postings on the Perfect Pooch Dog Blog (http://perfect-pooch.com/dog-blog/) frequently.


Learn more about citing blogs by reading the APA Style Blog: How to cite a blog post in APA style

The APA Style Blog recommends that when you are preparing a citation for a comment on someone's blog, focus on establishing

  • Who
  • When
  • What
  • Where

For example, here's a post from Michael Geist's blog (http://www.michaelgeist.ca/blog/):

Screenshot of blog post from Michael Geist's website
Screenshot source: Geist, M. (2016, July 18). Pokémon Go Craze Brings New “Augmented Reality” Legal Issues Into Light [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2016/07/pokemon-go-craze-brings-new-augmented-reality-legal-issues-into-light/

Here is a comment on this post:

A sample blog comment posted to Michael Geist's blog
Screenshot source: Geist, M. (2016, July 18). Pokémon Go craze brings new “augmented reality” legal issues into light [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2016/07/pokemon-go-craze-brings-new-augmented-reality-legal-issues-into-light/

Reference list entry:

McCall, M. (2016, July 19). Re: Pokémon Go craze brings new “augmented reality” legal issues into light [Blog comment]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2016/07/pokemon-go-craze-brings-new-augmented-reality-legal-issues-into-light/

In-text citation:

(McCall, 2016)

Learn more about how to cite a comment on a blog at the APA Style Blog: How to cite a blog comment in APA Style

Note: Look to see if a comment has it's own unique URL - click on the date stamp if possible. If it doesn't, just use the URL associated with the blog post.

Review more on blog posts and comments on the APA Style Blog: How to Cite a Blog Comment in APA Style

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Mobile app - whole app

There are two things to consider when using mobile app as an information source, are you referencing the whole app or a piece of information.

Follow this format for the whole app. 

Sample format:

Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Reference entry:

Instagram, LLC. (2018). Instagram (106.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

In-text citation

(Instagram, 2018)

Mobile app - Entry in a work app

Follow this format when referencing an entry in a reference work app. The example below is for a medical dictionary app.

Reference entry:

Sepsis. (2016). In Medical dictionary - healthcare definitions for Apple iOS (Version 1.7) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://www.medicaldictionary.com/mobile/iphone 

In-text citation:

(Sepsis, 2016)

 

Twitter

Screenshot of Obama's tweet cited below
Screenshot source: Obama, B. [Barack]. (2014, April 17). Two victories for clean energy in California: http://ofa.bo/fYb [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BarackObama

Reference page entry:

Obama, B. [Barack]. (2014, April 17). Two victories for clean energy in California: http://ofa.bo/fYb [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BarackObama

In-text citation:

(Obama, 2014)

Facebook

When citing a Facebook note from a particular group, include [Facebook note]. after the title of the post. Here is an example of a Facebook note posted by the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation.

Reference page entry:

Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation. (2014, April 14). Let's get active, at least 30 minutes every day. [Facebook note]. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from https://www.facebook.com/reduceyourrisk

In-text citation:

(Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, 2014)

LinkedIn

LinkedIn profiles can be problematic because some are not available for public viewing!

Non-public LinkedIn Profiles:

  • If the LinkedIn profile is not viewable by the public (i.e. in a closed group; everyone can't access it), cite it as a form of personal communication.

Public LinkedIn Profiles:

If a profile is public, you can cite it like any other social media status update, using the basic format: Author'sLastName, A. [Albert]. (n.d.) Posts [LinkedIn page].  Retrieved August 29, 2014 from http://www.linked.com/profile...

Screenshot of Justin Trudea's public LinkedIn profile
Screenshot source: Trudeau, J. [Justin]. (n.d.) Posts [LinkedIn page].  Retrieved August 19, 2016 from https://ca.linkedin.com/in/justintrudeau

Reference page entry:

Trudeau, J. [Justin]. (n.d.) Posts [LinkedIn page].  Retrieved August 19, 2016 from https://ca.linkedin.com/in/justintrudeau

In-text citation:

(Trudeau, n.d.).


For more social media citation guidelines, see the APA Style Blog - How to cite Social Media in APA style

Pinterest post

Screenshot of a Pinterest post about Dr. Seuss books & activities
Screenshot source: Chitwood, D. [Deb]. (n.d.). Dr. Seuss Unit Study [Pinterest post]. Retrieved August 19, 2016 from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/1618549845267022/

Reference list entry:

Chitwood, D. [Deb]. (n.d.). Dr. Seuss Unit Study [Pinterest post]. Retrieved August 19, 2016 from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/1618549845267022/

In-text citation:

(Childwood, n.d.)

Note: to find details about the person who pinned an item to complete your citation, you may need to click on the creator's profile image.