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APA Writing & Citing Guide

APA examples provided are not exhaustive. Students must seek assistance from the Writing Centre and/or their Professor for specific or problematic references. The library is not responsible for errors, omissions or problems of interpretation. Last Updated

211ontario.ca

Reference page entry:

David Busby Centre. (n.d.). In 211Ontario.ca online directory of services. Retrieved from http://www.211ontario.ca/ontario/

In-text citation:

(David Busby Centre, n.d.)

Cochrane (Collaboration and Database of Systematic Reviews)

This is an example of identifying the source in a non-traditional journal found in a database. In this example, the source is Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The other rules of APA still apply in terms of author, date, volume, issue, and page numbers.

Reference page entry (3-5 authors):

Singh, J., Noorbaloochi, S., MacDonald, R., & Maxwell, L. (2016). Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2016(4), 1-297.

In-text citation (3-5 authors):

(Singh, Noorbaloochi, MacDonald & Maxwell, 2016) *use all last names for first in-text citation

(Singh et al., 2016) *use for next or any other instances of in-text citation

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The DSM is available in print and electronic format.  The APA Style Blog gives the following examples for how to cite both the online and the printed version. For further information, please refer to the official APA style blog.

Reference page entry for the printed version of the DSM-5:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

In-text citation:

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Source: APA Style Blog

Reference page entry for the online version of the DSM-5:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053

In-text citation:

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Source: APA Style Blog

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Grant Connect

Reference page entry:

Imagine Canada. (2016, June 7). Robert Kerr Foundation. Grant Connect. Retrieved from https://grantconnect.ca/Account/LogOn/

In-text citation:

(Imagine Canada, 2016)

IEEE

Sample conference proceeding reference entry from a book format:

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., & Contributor, C. C. (Year). Title of contribution. In Title of Conference (page numbers). doi:  

Reference entry:

Ghosh, S. (2018). Smart homes: Architectural and engineering design imperatives for smart city building codes. In 2018 Technologies for Smart-City Energy Security and Power (ICSESP) (pp. 1-4). doi: 10.1109/ICSESP.2018.8376676

In-text citation:

(Ghosh, 2018)

 

Sample proceeding reference entry from a journal format:

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., & Contributor, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Proceeding, publisher location, volume (issue), (page numbers). doi: 

Reference entry:

Lachs, W. R. (2005). Area-wide system protection scheme against extreme contingencies. Proceedings of the IEEE, USA, 93 (5), (pp. 1004-1027). doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2005.847263

In-text citation:

(Lachs, 2005)