Honours Bachelor of Science - Nursing Degree

Honours Bachelor of Science, nursing Nursing, Nurses

Nursing Research & Statistics

Nursing Research & Scholarly Writing


Illustration of a patient surrounding by other disciplines such as social workers, general practitioners, physiotherapists and psychotherapists


The Open University. (2022). Multidisciplinary study: the value and benefits. https://www.open.edu/openlearn/education-development/multidisciplinary-study-the-value-and-benefits/content-section-2

Multidisciplinary research takes place when:

  • Researchers from different disciplines each work on a common problem or research question.
  • Researchers share research goals and work on the same problem, but look at it from their own profession's point of view.
  • The findings from each discipline increase each other's understanding.
  • Each issue can be analyzed by a particular specialty, which is needed to answer complex research problems


Today's healthcare system calls for better information to health-care providers and researchers for evidence-based or informed practice.  Nurses need to be able to understand and assess research from other disciplines to play a crucial role in solving emerging healthcare challenges.  To assist with this knowledge, nurses must value a multidisciplinary approach in addressing critical healthcare questions.

Please check out the eBooks listed below for more great information on the implications of multidisciplinary research to nursing.

To increase an understanding of multidisciplinary research, another strategy is to search other health or health-related library databases, besides CINAHL:

  • Academic Search Premier (Multidisciplinary)
  • Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source
  • ERIC
  • IEEE Xplore Digital Library
  • Medline
  • PubMed
  • Science Direct College Edition
  • PyscArticles
  • PsycBooks
  • PsychiatryOnline
  • SocINDEX with Full Text



Green, B.N. , & Johnson, C.D. (2015). Interprofessional collaboration in research, education, and clinical practice: working together for a better future. The Journal of Chiropractic Education, 29(1), 1-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360764/

NC State University. (2020). The difference between multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and convergence research. Retrieved from https://research.ncsu.edu/rdo/the-difference-between-multidisciplinary-interdisciplinary-and-convergence-research/

Rosen, M., & DiazGranados, D., (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: key discoveries enabling safer, high quality care. American Psychologist, 73(4), 433-450. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361117/


The role of nursing research and evidence-informed practice is unique and significant. The healthcare system is changing at a rapid rate and presents a great diversity of challenges. These challenges are often met by integrating evidence-informed knowledge into nursing practice. Consider these aspects:

Nursing Research:

  • Is important to achieving the goal of providing quality outcomes with families and communities
  • Allows nurses to develop a foundation of specialized knowledge and competencies which equips them for clinical practice and the health care system
  • Places the nursing profession at the cutting edge of change and maintains relevancy
  • Is the component which links theory, education and practice


It's important to define research terms in nursing:

  • Research
    • is the systematic and rigorous investigation with the purpose of answering questions about nursing phenomena
  • Evidence-based nursing practice
    • is the incorporation of evidence from research, clinical expertise, client preferences and other available resources to make decisions about clients.
  • Evidence-informed practice
    • extends beyond evidence-based practice. It builds on evidence-based practice by acknowledging and considering the many factors that make up local ways of knowing such as Indigenous knowledge, cultural and religious norms and clinical judgement


Consider reviewing these articles Demystifying Nursing Research Terminology, Part I and Demystifying Nursing Research Part 2 for more information on nursing research terms, frameworks, paradigms and strategies.


LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, J., Cameron, C., & Singh, M. D. (2018). Nursing research in Canada : methods, critical appraisal, and utilization (Cameron & M. D. Singh, Eds.; Fourth Canadian edition.). Elsevier Canada.

Research is an attempt to answer questions; methodology is the study of how research is accomplished. It is the way people outline their procedures, and the way in which knowledge is gained. It outlines the principles that guide the research process.

Since nursing is a practice discipline, the main purpose of nursing research is to use research findings to improve patient care. In nursing, the research methods most commonly used include:



Check out this brief Quantitative vs Qualitative Research Methods video on the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods. For information on the hierarchy of evidence, check out the Learning Portal's section on Evidence-Based Practice.

Qualitative research is well suited to studying the human experience of health which is vital to nursing science. Qualitative research:

  • Refers to a method of inquiry in which the researcher seeks to answer questions about how or why a particular phenomenon occurs
  • Collects the perspectives of individuals and seeks to draw conclusions from the sample groups being studied
  • Data collection methods include interviews, focus groups and observations.
  • Examples of qualitative methods used in nursing research include grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, and qualitative description.

Quantitative research is a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. This research or data is:

  • Used to test hypotheses, determine causation between variables and measure the frequency of observations
  • Counted or measured
  • Examples of such methods include clinical trials, surveys and cohort studies
  • Traditionally considered more rigorous, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews being the 'gold standard' for determining evidence, but quantitative and qualitative methods are both considered valid when applied correctly.

Mixed methods research methodologies are increasingly applied in nursing research to strengthen an understanding of nursing phenomena. The definition of mixed methods, from the first issue of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, is “research in which the investigator collects and analyzes data, integrates the findings, and draws inferences using both qualitative and quantitative approaches or methods in a single study or program of inquiry.” Mixed methods research:

  • Combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches for the purpose of increasing the breadth and depth of understanding
  • Features four major types of mixed methods designs are triangulation design, embedded design, explanatory design, and exploratory design.



Campbell, S. (2016). Perspectives: method and methodology in nursing research. Journal of Research in Nursing, 21(8), 656-659. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1744987116679583

Hoe, J., & Hoare, Z. (2013). Understanding quantitative research: part 1. Nursing Standard, 27 (15-17),52-57.  https://www.proquest.com/docview/1242111533?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

Hoover, L. (2021, June 30). Why qualitative research in healthcare is important. Doctoral journey. https://www.gcu.edu/blog/doctoral-journey/why-qualitative-research-healthcare-important

LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, J., Cameron, C., & Singh, M. D. (2018). Nursing research in Canada : methods, critical appraisal, and utilization (Cameron & M. D. Singh, Eds.; Fourth Canadian edition.). Elsevier Canada.

Silva, A. R., Padilha, M.It., Petry, S., Silva, E. S., Woo, V., Galicia, K., Wilson, J., Luctka-flude, M. (2022). Reviews of literature in nursing research: methodological considerations and defining characteristics. Advances in Nursing Science, 45(3), 197-208. https://journals.lww.com/advancesinnursingscience/Fulltext/2022/07000/Reviews_of_Literature_in_Nursing_Research_.2.aspx


Please check out this video, The Anatomy of a Scholarly Article, by Oregon State University, which describes the anatomy or different parts of a scholarly article.

Nursing students often ask the question, "How do I know if this is a good article?"

A scholarly article is a peer-reviewed article which presents the findings of a study or research. This type of article is written by nurses or healthcare experts to share information and improve aspects of their profession. Scholarly articles are considered more credible than other sources since the results are based on studies and not opinion.

Here are some qualities and links about scholarly journal articles to help in selecting literature:

A "good" scholarly journal article:

  • Is from a credible or well known nursing or health-related journal
  • Is peer-reviewed which indicates other nurses have reviewed the article for credibility and validity
  • Usually features a title and abstract which reflect the relevance of the topic
  • Is written by nursing or healthcare-related scholars or researchers
  • Contains a clearly defined research question or thesis statement
  • Features the keywords which reflect the research concepts
  • Contains well developed points which match the research topic
  • Usually discusses the nurse's role or nursing implications
  • Features well organized content often structured around nursing theoretical frameworks
  • Contributes to an understanding of the topic for nursing practice, education or theory
  • Provides a balanced conclusion which synthesizes the main points
  • Contains a reference list which demonstrates an appropriate number of authoritative and current or seminal sources


Please consider checking out the Library & Academic Success' APA Guide for great information and examples on how to format assignments and cite sources using APA.

Locating Health Statistics & Data

Health statistics are used to understand risk factors for populations, track and monitor diseases, see the effect of policies, and assess the quality and safety of health care. Health statistics are also a form of evidence that can support a recommendation or a plan of care.

It can be intimidating to locate health statistics, but with some suggestions, the task can be made easier. Keep in mind that the specific statistic you need may not be available in the date required or even exist to suit the information need. Please check below with some of the key Canadian statistics gathering organizations which may assist.

Consider these recommendations:


  • Identify the type of statistics or data need to answer your research  inquiry. Do you need:
    • a numerical statistic or fact, such as prevalence rates, mortality rates, or other health indicators?
    • A chart or figure?
  • Identify the geographical nature of your information need?
    • Are you looking for a local city or town, a health district region, a province or another country?
    • The answers to these questions will help determine which agency or organization to check for relevant facts.
  • Identify one or more specific organizations/agencies that are most likely to collect or share the information you need such as:
    • The Simcoe County District Health Unit (local statistics)
    • Government of Canada's Public Health Infobase (national data)
    • Statistics Canada (Canada's population, resources, economy, society and culture statistics)
    • World Health Organization (global health statistics and focus)



National Library of Medicine. (2020). Finding health statistics exercises. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/stats_tutorial/section4/index.html

National Library of Medicine. (2020). About health statistics. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/stats_tutorial/section1/index.html

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