Skip to Main Content

APA (7th ed.) Citing Guide: Data Sets

APA 7th Edition

This guide is representative of the 7th edition Publication Manual of APA and focuses on a student paper structure.

APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.

Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.

Effective September 2020.

What are Data Sets, Software, & Tests?

Data sets:

  • collection of data (e.g. Vividata)
  • supports research through validation of results
  • secondary analyses of public archived data
  • original data identified through research


  • includes artificial intelligence generators like ChatGPT and others
  • citations not required for common software and apps, such as MS Office products, Twitter
  • reference list entries and in-text citations required for content you have paraphrased or quoted
  • software and apps with a limited distribution require a reference list entry and in-text citations


  • includes tests, scales and inventories
  • scales are standardized criteria to measure characteristics eg. Likert scale
  • tests are created using scales e.g. psychometric tests
  • inventories are used to measure traits and tendencies such as personality, learning styles
  • requires a citation for its supporting literature if available, if not, cite the test itself
chat loading... if this message persists, please try reloading your page.