This guide is representative of the 7th edition Publication Manual of APA and focuses on a student paper structure.
APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.
Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.
Effective September 2020.
Journal citations have several elements that need to be included in the reference list entry and in-text citations.
Image Source: Janzen, B., Karunanayake, C., Rennie, D., Katapally, T., Dyck, R., McMullin, K., Fenton, M., Jimmy, L., MacDonald, J., Ramsden, V. R., Dosman, J., Abonyi, S., & Pahwa, P. (2017). Racial discrimination and depression among on-reserve First Nations people in rural Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 108(5–6), e482-e487. https://doi.org/10.17269/CJPH.108.6151
For another illustration, check the APA Style website here.
Reference list entry:
Archer, C. L., Brodie, J. F., & Rauscher, S. A. (2019). Global warming will aggravate ozone pollution in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology, 58(6), 1267–1278. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0263.1
Note: List all authors up to 20 authors.
See Publication Manual, Section 9.8. See Publication Manual 8.17 for in-text citation examples when there are multiple authors.
Fenske, W., Refardt, J., Chifu, I., Schnyder, I., Winzeler, B., Drummond, J., Ribeiro-Oliveira, A., Jr, Drescher, T., Bilz, S., Vogt, D. R., Malzahn, U., Kroiss, M., Christ, E., Henzen, C., Fischli, S., Tönjes, A., Mueller, B., Schopohl, J., Flitsch, J., …Christ-Crain, M. (2018). A copeptin-based approach in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 379(5), 428–439. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1803760
Note: List first 19 authors followed by "..." then the last author of the article. There are no spaces before or after "...". See Publication Manual 8.17 for in-text citation examples when there are multiple authors.
Toncic, J. (2020). Teachers, AI grammar checkers, and the newest literacies: Emending writing pedagogy and assessment. Digital Culture & Education, 12(1) 26-51. https://doaj.org/article/69fe64fef90e46588b7e47e15dc1ba3c
Note: If an open access journal article has a DOI, include the DOI and not the URL.
Walters, G., & Contri, D. (1998). Outcome expectancies for gambling: Empirical modeling of a memory network in federal prison inmates. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(2), 173-91.
Dagen, A. S. & Morewood, A. (2016). Strengthening early literacy through online collaboration and mentoring. YC Young Children, 71;(4), 20-25. https://www.jstor.org/stable/ycyoungchildren.71.4.20
What is an article number or eLocator?
Kihoon, K., Ratri, M. C., Choe, G., Nam, M., Cho, D. & Shin, K. (2020). Three-dimensional, printed water-filtration system for economical, on-site arsenic removal. PLoS ONE, 15(4), Article e0231475. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231475
Grande, J.A., Keogh, J., Silva, V., Scott, A.M. (2020). Exercise versus no exercise for the occurrence, severity, and duration of acute respiratory infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010596.pub3
Note: Articles in the Cochrane database are only accessible in that database. Follow the formats for journal references. The database name takes the place of the source.
Lachs, W. R. (2005). Area-wide system protection scheme against extreme contingencies. Proceedings of the IEEE, USA, 93(5), 1004-1027. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2005.847263
For more information see APA Style
For all of the examples above, the in-text citation follows the same format. Refer to the Publication Manual, Section 8.17 for explanation with multiple authors.
Parenthetical citation format: (last name of author(s), year)
e.g. (Lachs, 2005)
e.g. (Walters & Contri, 1998)
Narrative citation format: include the author's or authors' names in the sentence, with the date in brackets
e.g. Lachs (2005) wrote...
e.g. Walters and Contri (1998) wrote...
More in-text citation information on this guide.