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APA (7th ed.) Citing Guide: Audiovisual Works

APA 7th Edition

This guide is representative of the 7th edition Publication Manual of APA and focuses on a student paper structure.

APA examples are not exhaustive and focus on referencing and citations. Assistance from your professor and/or Writing Centre is suggested for clarification.

Users are responsible for interpretation of APA style guidelines and to seek further assistance when necessary.

Effective September 2020.

What is an Audiovisual Work?

Audiovisual Works:

  • have both audio and visual components
  • include various formats such as DVD, recorded webinar, streaming
  • use the writers, directors, executive producers usually as the author and need to be identified, e.g. (Director), (Executive Producer). See Publication Manual Section 10.12 Audiovisual Media for a table of who to include as the author for each media type.

If you are quoting from an audiovisual work, you will need the time stamp from the beginning of the quote for the in-text.

For additional examples, see Publication Manual Section 10.12 

DVD or Film

Reference list entry:

Newman, D. (Director). (2005). What we've learned: A youth perspective of drug misuse [DVD]. Sudbury Action Centre for Youth.

News Videos (Global News)

Reference list entry:

Global National. (2020, February 21). The struggle of living with addiction [Video]. Global News.

Note: Global National was used as for the author credit because it was from that newscast but Global News is the overall publisher. Description of the format is in square brackets [].


Reference list entry:

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video]. YouTube.

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as author even if they did not create the work. Include the screen name only if it is included. After the description, include the name of the streaming source, e.g. YouTube, Vimeo, These are streaming platforms that allow individuals to host content.

TEDTalk From TED Website

Reference list entry:

Urban, T. (2016, February). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. TED Conferences.

Note: More information about how to cite TED Talk see APA Style

TED Talk From YouTube

Reference list entry:

TED. (2016, April 6). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. YouTube.

Note: More information about how to cite TED Talk see APA Style


Reference list entry:

Collins, M. (2019, September 20). A new PubMed: Highlights for information professionals [Webinar]. National Library of Medicine.

Note: Use this for recorded webinars that can be retrieved. For unrecorded or unretrievable webinars, list as personal communications, see Publication Manual Section 8.9 

Whole TV Series (Netflix, Crave, Shomi)

Reference list entry:

Morgan, P. (Writer), Morgan, P., Daldry, S., Harries, A., Martin, P., Mackie, S., Byam-Shaw, M., Fox, R., Seghatchian, T., Wolarsky, N., & Goss, A. (Executive Producers). (2016-present). The crown [TV series]. Left Bank Pictures; Sony Pictures Television; Netflix.

Note: The dates represent the beginning and end years of the series. If the series is still airing, replace the 2nd year with "present", e.g. (2016-present).

Single Episode (Netflix, Crave, Shomi)

Reference list entry:

Morgan, P. (Writer), & Martin, P. (Director). (2016). Smoke and mirrors (Season 1, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In P. Morgan, S. Daldry, A. Harries, P. Martin, S. Mackie, M. Byam-Shaw, R. Fox, T. Seghatchian, N. Wolarsky, & A. Goss (Executive Producers), The crown. Left Bank Pictures; Sony Pictures Television; Netflix.

Note: The reference list entry first lists the episode information before listing the full series information. Precede the full series information with "In". When providing the full series information, the author(s) name(s) are not reversed. Season and episode number are listed after the episode title.

In-Text Citation

For all of the examples above, the in-text citation follows the same format unless noted with the example. Refer to the Publication Manual, Section 8.17 for explanation with multiple authors.

Parenthetical citation format: (last name of author(s), year, time stamp)

e.g. (Collins, 2019, 2:12)

e.g. (Urban, 2016, 3:29)

Narrative citation format: include the author's or authors' names in the sentence, with the date in brackets. Include the time stamp as appropriate.

e.g. Collins (2019) wrote...

e.g. Urban (2016) wrote...

More in-text citation information on this guide.

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